Funded by World Bank Group Kenya Office
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES
The World Bank regularly monitors and reports on many aspects of development in Kenya. In the context of country level environmental analytic work, the Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) is one of the key country-level diagnostic tools designed to evaluate systematically the environmental priorities of development in the country, the environmental implications of key policies, and countries ‘capacity to address their priorities.
The Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) seeks to enhance the government’s understanding of Kenya’s critical environmental and natural resource challenges and priorities with a view to enhancing action and solutions that directly contribute to Kenya’s Vision 2030 strategy. Vision 2030 aims to build a just and cohesive society with social equity in a clean and secure environment. This is clearly in line the recently concluded United National General Assembly –UNGA (September 2015), which adopted Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), including Goal 15 of life on land which has target 9 of integrating environmental management into national and local planning and development processes because environmental conservation is part and parcel of sustainability in all development perspectives. More specifically, the environment is one of the six ‘social pillars’ of the Kenya vision 2030 whose objective is to endure that Kenya becomes a nation with a clean, secure and sustainable environment by 2030. From a broader perspective, the environment plays a key role not only in its linkages to major economic activities and other sectors such as Agriculture and in balancing the ecosystem but also in the realization of sustainable development.
In examining the environmental management challenges ahead for Kenya, the principal audience for the CEA is the Government of the Republic of Kenya. The CEA will also help define the scope and direction of possible future donor support to strengthen environmental management, and will help inform and coordinate the activities of civil society and other development partners in this area. The Kenya CEA will therefore provide analytical inputs, develop policy recommendations, and define priority investments to help the Government of Kenya (GOK) to address the country‘s most critical environmental management challenges, including environmental aspects of the growth agenda supported through World Bank development policy lending. The CEA is therefore intended to inform decision making and promote ways to achieve sustainable economic growth.
Kenya is endowed with enormous natural resources which provide both ecological goods and services to the National as well as County economies. The Country has through time depended on these ecological goods and services as the National Capital. The Water towers for example provide important recharge for rivers draining several water basins and providing water for domestic use, agriculture, for wildlife and maintains the hydrological cycle; that regulates the atmospheric temperature and neutrality. The cycle is important to the life of many organisms. In addition water provides habitat to a myriad of species. From the foregoing it is imperative the growth of the National Economy is directly linked to the integrity of the Environment. In pursuit of development the environment has become more vulnerable due to both natural and human induced factors like climate change resulting into negative impact on the environments. The rivers that form major water sources in Kenya are increasingly becoming polluted and the water becoming less and less portable. It is therefore important to constantly keep a watch on such trends and raise alarm at the opportune time for correcting actions and the environmental changes to be stopped.
Kenya government has achieved major milestones in its quest to protect and conserve its natural resources. The Kenya Constitution of 2010 has provided for very clear direction on Natural Resources use and management. It has elevated environmental integrity into a human right, this makes environment assessment, monitoring and reporting a critical aspect of National as well as county governance.
The growth of the agricultural sector relies heavily on the health of the environment; the government must put in place policies that will enhance sustainable economic development in Kenya. The country must endeavor to create a balance between the development of the agricultural sector and environmental conservation. For instance, the horticultural sector brought in Kshs. 68.1 billion into the economy in 2011, but at what cost? The sector, especially the flower industry, employs many Kenyans but has also been blamed for environmental degradation in the Lake Naivasha ecosystem. Measures to rehabilitate the catchment areas and the control of soil erosion will ensure that Kenyan enjoys sustainable agriculture for generations to come.
Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and the overall development. Most manufacturing involves significant social and environmental costs. The clean-up costs of hazardous waste may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. In Kenya, the manufacturing sector has been blamed for a myriad of problems that face the environment today. There have been increased emissions hence pollution of air, water and soils; displacement of people to pave way for more industries and other social issues like increase in informal settlements. To ensure sustainable development in Kenya, the country ought to promote Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. NEMA is the Designated National Authority (DNA) for all CDM projects in Kenya. Under the Kyoto Protocol; every country is required to set up a DNA to oversee all CDM projects.
There are various challenges affecting the tourism sector, despite the continuous good performance. This is attributed to the government’s commitment to providing an enabling environment coupled with successful tourism promotion and diversification of sources of markets. The increasing trends on the number of visitors/tourists exert pressure on the Kenyan natural resources such as wildlife and the beaches which are the main tourist attractions. In addition, unregulated tourism, especially in unprotected areas, may portend serious and deleterious effects on the environment either through pollution loadings from the facilities such as hotels, increasing water usage/demands and/or plastic waste. Tourism also brings about other socio-evils including bio-piracy, proliferation of illegal drugs (narcotics), prostitution, child pornography and child abuse. It is therefore imperative to promote sustainable tourism measures and practices within the tourist hotspot areas. Tourism is a strong economic instrument, contributing greatly to the livelihoods of thousands of Kenyans. The country ought to improve policing to ensure that proper tourist laws and code of ethics are enforced.
Energy production in Kenya relies heavily on the environment. This has led to environmental degradation in some areas and subsequent loss of livelihoods for communities. Other environmental concerns include carbon emissions from fossil fuels, oil spills and the loss of biodiversity. In order to ensure sustainable use of these resources, the country must take measures to ensure their continuity. Kenya Power is mandated to transmit and distribute electricity in Kenya and has had a long-running tree planting programme in various parts of the country including forests in Uasin Gishu County. The initiatives include the planting of Eucalyptus grandii species in highland areas for use as power poles upon maturity, and indigenous seedlings in the water catchment areas and river beds to sustain rivers. These efforts must continue in order to enhance sustainable energy production.
1.3 Current Environmental and Natural Resource Management Issues and Implications to Sustainable development
Constitutional provisions provide a broad framework under which the environment should be managed and natural resources exploited in the new dispensation. For example, Section 69 1 (a) of the constitution obliges the state to ensure sustainable exploitation, utilization, management and conservation of the environment and natural resources, and ensures the equitable sharing of the accruing benefits. Section 69 1 (h) obligates the state to eliminate process and activities that are likely to endanger the environment. To effectively implement the provisions of the constitution and other laws, respective state agencies and policy makers require full information on how to achieve the objective of sustainable utilization of environmental and natural resources in the process of development.
The country’s development blue print document, dubbed the Vision 2030 recognizes the environment and natural resources as being a critical in achieving the socio-economic and political development objectives of the country. According to the Vision 2030, the government aims at transforming the country into a middle income economy where citizens enjoy a high quality life in a clean and secure environment. The important link between environmental conservation and economic development is inherently clearly recognized in the economic development blue-print document. The Vision 2030 recognizes various environmental challenges the country faces currently and is likely to face in future. It singles out climate change as one of the threats the country will have to grapple with in the foreseeable future. To address climate change related challenges, the country has developed National Climate Change Response Strategy and Kenya National Climate Change Action Plan (2013-2017). Other challenges recognized include pollution and waste management, effective water and sanitation delivery, deforestation, and biodiversity degradation. The extent and magnitude of these challenges need to be well articulated and understood in order to inform policy decisions for their mitigation.
The Vision 2030 proposes some strategic actions required to overcome the aforesaid challenges. However, it also recognizes the challenge posed by the fragmented institutional framework around which environment and natural resources are managed in spite of the enactment of the Environmental Management and Coordination Act of 1999. Achieving the goals set out in the national development blue print will require intensified efforts and practical steps by all relevant stakeholders to integrate sustainable development in all sectors of the economy.
1.4 Link between Environmental Conservation and Attainment of United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
The Sustainable Development Goals, otherwise known as the Global Goals, build on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), eight anti-poverty targets that the world committed to achieving by 2015. The MDGs, adopted in 2000, aimed at an array of issues that included slashing poverty, hunger, disease, gender inequality, and access to water and sanitation. Enormous progress has been made on the MDGs, showing the value of a unifying agenda underpinned by goals and targets. Despite this success, the indignity of poverty has not been ended for all. The new SDGs, and the broader sustainability agenda, go much further than the MDGs, addressing the root causes of poverty and the universal need for development that works for all people.
The SDG number 15 is life on land and envisions sustainable management of forests, combating of desertification, halting and reversing land degradation, and halting biodiversity loss. Human life depends on the earth as much as the ocean for our sustenance and livelihood. Plant life provides 80 percent of our human diet, and we rely on agriculture as an important economic resource and means of development. Forests account for 30 percent of the Earth’s surface, providing vital habitats for millions of species and important sources for clean air and water; as well as being crucial for combating climate change.
Today we are seeing unprecedented land degradation, and the loss of arable land at 30 to 35 times the historical rate. Drought and desertification is also on the rise each year, amounting to the loss of 12 million hectares and affects poor communities globally. Of the 8,300 animal breeds known, 8 percent are extinct and 22 percent are at risk of extinction.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to conserve and restore the use of terrestrial ecosystems such as forests, wetlands, drylands and mountains by 2020. Promoting the sustainable management of forests and halting deforestations is also vital to mitigating the impact of climate change. Urgent action must be taken to reduce the loss of natural habitats and biodiversity which are part of our common heritage.
Conserving forests and other ecosystems is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.
1.5.1 Overall objective
The main aim of the Country Environment Analysis (CEA) is to undertake a broad review of Kenya’s critical environmental and natural resources including land, climate change, disaster risk management challenges and issues at national and county levels in a devolved context.
1.5.2 Specific objectives
- To review and prioritize the critical environment and natural resources challenges and issues at the national and county levels.
- To assess the institutional capacity for environment and natural resources management at the National and County level.
- To assess the participation and role of private sector in environment and natural resources management at the national and county levels.
- To assess the level of Integration of environment and natural resources issues in the main development plans and strategies at the national and county levels.
- To understand how effective counties are prioritizing and implementing environment and natural resources activities including compliance and Enforcement.
- To review national and county level budgetary allocations to environment and natural resources activities
- To assess the existing channels of communication, cooperation and collaborations within and between agencies with respect to environment and natural resources at the national and county level
- To review development partners current and planned support to environment and natural resources activities
The methodology that was applied for data collection, analysis and involvement of stakeholders was appropriate to ensure that the information collected was validated, reliable and sufficient to meet the study objectives, and that the Country Environment Analysis (CEA) was complete, fair and unbiased. Both primary data and secondary data were applied to collect, analyze and write this final report. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to execute the assignment and the scope and statistical tools that were applied in this analysis were wholly dependent on the nature of data and information collected.
The methodology for the implementation of the assignment consisted of two distinct phases: (1) data collection through desk reviews and internet search of existing studies and reports including but not limited to: policies and legislations for both national and devolved units; annual reports for NGOs involved in conservation issues; County Integrated Development Plans (CIDPs); statistical abstracts; Economic Survey reports; Vision 2030; NEMA reports; amongst others, and (2) data collection through field visits to various national government and county institutions including the Ministry of Environment, Water and Natural Resources; Kenya Meteorological Agency; Kenya Forest Service (KFS); Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS); National Environment Management Authority (NEMA); National Environment Trust Fund (NETFUND); University of Nairobi (UON); Kenya Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA); Ministry of Water; Ministry of Livestock; Ministry of lands; Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries; Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO); Council of Governors Secretariat; and a visit to the 47 county governments across the country. The study also visited various development partners, Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) and the private sector, notable of who included: The East African Wild Life Society (EAWS); Kenya Forest Working Group (KFWG); Environmental Resources Management Centre for Sustainable Development (ERMCSD); Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security of the CGIAR (CCAFS); United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); United Nations Environment programme (UNEP); Wangari Maathai Institute for Peace & Environmental Studies (WMI); Danish international development agency (DANIDA); Kenya Wetlands Working Group (KWWG); Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM); Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA); Green Africa Foundation (KAF); and the Clean Production Centre (CPC) among others. Key informants at the senior technical level were interviewed during the process.
The principal data collection methods for this study are summarized as follows:
Observational method: This method was applied to gather data through interrogative applications, topography, state and status of physical features, topography as well as ecological factors. This method was mainly used during county government’s visits across the country to collect information and data that KII and FGDs could not collect.
Key Informant Interviews (KII): As already indicated above, a sample of key informants from relevant private sector bodies, national government institutions and agencies, county governments, civil society organizations, development partners and research institutions, among others were purposively identified, selected and interviewed. In total, 47 counties, the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources and its affiliate agencies, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Lands, Ministry of Livestock, Ministry of Water, development partners, civil society organizations (CSOs), academic and research institutions and the private sector were interviewed.
Focus Group Discussion (FGD): FGDs targeting members of county departments of environment, water and natural resources; departmental heads of the ministry of environment and its affiliate agencies; civic society organizations and development partners were packaged to elicit necessary information through structured discussions and consensus.
The assignment was accomplished through five distinct but inter-related tasks complete with sub-tasks within each of the broad tasks. The main tasks included (i) stock-taking of Kenya’s current ENR problems, assessed in both physical and economic terms; (ii) a identifying the most critical ENR issues, using not only economic and ecological criteria, but public opinion and government priorities (iii) discussion of options for addressing those priority issues based on the latest international experience and good practice, (iv) reviewing institutional and governance issues, such as agency boundaries (both across sectors and national-sub national), capacity, and data; and (v) key recommendations.
A master checklist of issues was developed from which the key informant interview questions and focus group discussion issues was drawn. The master list of issues was broadly classified so as to incorporate all ToR tasks as follows: 1) Reviewing of Environment and NRM issues, threats and challenges; 2) Assessing of national and county level key development plans and strategies and their NRM implications; 3) Reviewing tools adopted by national and county governments to integrate ENR issues into national development agendas and strategizes such as vision 2030; 4)Reviewing government capacity to integrate environment and natural resources into planning and development processes in a devolved context; 5) Institutional analysis pertaining to ENR; 6) Assessing government’s capacity for proactive action-oriented planning and implementation of development projects/programs (in light of ongoing devolution process); 7) Assessing how trans-county ENR issue are addressed; 8) Assessing how counties are prioritizing and implementing E& NRM activities; 9) Assessing the levels of budgets being allocated from national treasury and county governments to support ENR priorities; 10) Assessing the existing channels of horizontal and vertical communication and dialogue; 11) Identifying the existing channels of inter and intra agency cooperation and collaboration in the public sector in ENR; 12) Assessing the national government capacity to create space and enhance cooperation and collaboration with private players; 13) Identifying weaknesses in public financing of environment and natural resources and provide recommendations for filling capacity gaps and institutional developments measures targeted at key public sector agencies; 14) Reviewing the adequacy of data and information sharing with the public in a devolved context; 15) Reviewing the development partners ongoing and planned ENR support activities; 16) Reviewing how climate change is being addressed at the national and county levels; 17) Reviewing how counties are dealing with liquid and solid waste management; and 18) Assess the level of involvement of private sector players in managing the ENRs.
In data analysis and representation, both qualitative and quantitative analysis of data was undertaken. Quantitative data was presented through cross tabulations, graphical presentation and descriptive statistics. The findings and recommendations of the Country Environmental Analysis were presented at a national stakeholder’s forum organized by the World Bank Group for validation. Inputs from the national stakeholders forum was then be incorporated into the draft report before the final report was submitted.